Article in Environmental Science and Technology magazine providing an overview of LID describing various LID practices and philosophies encouraging stormwater management using vegetated ares for overland flow management.
(2005) By Allen Davis, University of Maryland, published in Environmental Science and Technology. LID designs attempt to replicate pre-development hydrologic conditions as closely as possible. The desired result is not only a reduction in stormwater runoff from the site, but also improvements in water quality as well.
How land is developed deserves increased attention, especially as nonpoint-source pollution concerns move to the forefront in many water-quality evaluations, and total maximum daily load (TMDL) regulations inch closer to reality. In a fundamental sense, LID represents the application of pollution prevention and waste minimization concepts to land development.
Vegetated areas are used in LID wherever overland flow is expected. Sheet flow is directed over vegetated filter strips, which include grass or, better yet, wild grass, shrubs, or trees. Vegetated swales are used to convey concentrated flows. Soils should be engineered and managed to encourage infiltration.